http://www.aichigakuin.ac.jp/~jeffreyb/research/vote2.html
rough machine translation ...
[ Eng=>Jpn ]
An earlier paper (Blair, 2005) explains how the two major political parties in the United States perpetuate the twoparty myth, use the spoiler effect to keep power for themselves, but shift blame for distorted elections to third party candidates. This paper follows up to suggest a simple and easy solution to (1) eliminate this distortion, (2) make every person's vote count, (3) provide a more equitable distribution of political power, and (4) thereby help alleviate political apathy among potential new voters.
Blair (2005) reviewed the concept of the "third party" spoiler effect and how it has affected some recent Presidential elections in the United States. That paper also described how the two major political parties in conjunction with large political contributors and the mass media perpetuate the twoparty myth and use the spoiler effect to discourage voter support for minor parties. This paper follows up with a discussion of voting methods and suggests a simple and easy adjustment to the voting system that could eliminate the problem of the spoiler effect, better reflect the voters' true wishes, provide a more equitable distribution of power among political partiesparticularly between the major and minor parties, and by offering voters greater choice help alleviate apathy among potential new voters.
[Text] 

[Text] 

[Text] 

[Text] 

I wish to express my sincere thanks to Rik Smoody for valuable critical comments on earlier drafts. Not all of the advice received was necessarily heeded, however, and I retain full responsibility for the final product.
This paper is gratefully dedicated to Charles Smith (Berkeley, Calif.), the late Dexter Cate (19421990), Mary Neilson (Aiea, Hawaii), Ken Ellingwood (Oak Harbor, Washington) and all others who participated in that dedicated and caring group of people that kept the optimistic vision of the People's Party of Hawaii alive during the elections of 1974 and 1976.
Any comments on this article will be welcomed and should be mailed to the author at Aichi Gakuin University, Junior College Division, 1100 Kusumotocho, Chikusaku, Nagoya, Japan 4560037 or emailed to him. Other papers and works in progress may be accessed at http:// www.aichigakuin.ac.jp/ ~jeffreyb/ research / index.html.
Arrow, K. (1951). Social Choice and Individual Values.
Blair, J. (2005). Spoilers and the twoparty myth. The Faculty Journal of the Junior College Division of Aichi Gakuin University, 13, pp. 142153.
Brams, S. and P. Fishburn (1982). The history of voting. Approval Voting. Boston: Birkhauser.
Brams, S., P. Fishburn, and S. Merrill (1988). The responsiveness of approval voting: Comments on Saari and Van Newenhizen. Public Choice, 59, 21122131. Boston: Birkhauser.
Condorcet, M. (1785). Essai sur l'Application de l'Analyse a la Probabilite des Decisions Rendues a la Pluralite des Voix [Essay on the Application of Analysis to the Probability of Majority Decisions]. Paris.
O'Connor, J. and E. Robertson (1996). Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat Condoret. The MacTutor History of Mathematics. Posted at http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Condorcet.html and at http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Condorcet.html
O'Connor, J. and E. Robertson (2002). The history of voting. The MacTutor History of Mathematics. Posted at http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Voting.html and at http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Voting.html .
O'Connor, J. and E. Robertson (2003). Jean Charles de Borda. The MacTutor History of Mathematics. Posted at http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Borda.html and at http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Borda.html .
Saari, D. (2001). Chaotic Elections! A Mathematician Looks at Voting. City Unknown: The American Mathematical Society.
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004a). Arrow's impossibility theorem. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Arrow%27s_impossibility_theorem .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004c). Condorcet method. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Condorcet_method .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004d). Duverger's law. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Duverger%27s_law .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004f). Pleurality voting system [fomerly First Past the Post electoral system]. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Pleurality_ voting_ system .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004se). Spoiler effect. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Spoiler_effect .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004sn). Strategic nomination. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Strategic_nomination .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004ts). Twoparty system. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Twoparty_system .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004tv). Tactical voting. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Tactical_voting .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004v). Voting system. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Voting_system .
Wales, J. et al. (Eds., 2004vs). Vote pairing [formerly Vote swapping]. Wikipedia. Posted at http:// en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/Vote_pairing .
Weber, R. (1971). Title Unknown. Ph.D. thesis. Yale University.